Polymers and polymeric composites : properties, optimization, and applications
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KE composite can be considered as an alternative friction material, as the tested friction coefficient is within the suggested range for the friction material applications. Mustafa, A. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Visit emeraldpublishing. Findings The sample with 45 wt.
The number of runs required for full factorial design increases geometrically whereas fractional factorial design is efficient and significantly reduced the time. This method is popular because of its simplicity, but this very simplicity has led to unreliable results and inadequate conclusions. The fractional design might not contain the best design point. Under this method only one factor is varied, while all the other factors are kept fixed at a specific set of conditions. To overcome these problems, Taguchi advocated the use of orthogonal arrays and applied signal-to-noise ratio with orthogonal arrays to the robust design of products and processes.
Polymers and Polymeric Composites: Properties, Optimization, and Applications
He developed a method for designing experiments to investigate how different parameters affect the mean and variance of a process performance characteristic that defines how well the process is functioning. Orthogonal arrays are special standard experimental design that requires only a small number of experimental trials to find the main factors effects on output. The following standard orthogonal arrays are commonly used to design experiments:.
Before selecting an orthogonal array, the minimum number of experiments to be conducted is to be fixed based on the formula below. In the present study, particle size, volume fraction of reinforcement material and matrix material are selected as the process parameters, which affect the thermal properties, namely, thermal conductivity of rice husk particles reinforced polymer composite materials.
There are three numbers of parameters. Each parameter was examined at three levels to study the non-linearity effect of the process parameters. Considering the Equation 2 the minimum no. But for 3-Level arrays L9 is the minimum one. Hence, minimum 9 experiments were required. It would require a total of 27 experiments to optimize the parameters. Taguchi experimental design of experiments suggests L9 orthogonal array, where 9 experiments are sufficient to optimize the parameters.
In the present study, the selected process parameters and their levels are given in Table 1 and the three parameters at three levels each, L9 3 4 orthogonal array OA was used and accordingly nine rice husk polymer composites RHPC specimens were prepared as per the experimental layout plan Table 2. Table 1.
Polymers and Composites for Structural Applications - PCCL - Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH
Process parameters and their levels selected for the preparation of RHPC specimens. Table 2. Experimental layout plan. In our present investigation, to obtain the optimal operating parameters, smaller the better type category is used for thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity obtained from the experimental study for the particulate filled epoxy composite with varied proportion of rice husk are shown in Figure 4. This figure shows that the incorporation of rice husk results in reduction of thermal conductivity of epoxy resin and there by improves its insulation capability.
This reduction might have been attributed due to the core of the filler is porous and also the thermal conductivity of rice husk is less than the thermal conductivity of epoxy resin.
Therefore, increasing the percentage of rice husk decreases the thermal conductivity of the composite. The shape of rice husk assumed to be spherical while in actual practice they are irregular shaped.
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Though the distribution of rice husk in the matrix body is assumed to be in an arranged manner, but it is actually dispersed in the resin almost randomly. With addition of 10 Vol. The values of thermal conductivities of composite with two components i.
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Figure 4. Thermal conductivity of epoxy composites as a function of filler content Rice husk. Table 3. It is observed that the RHPC materials have thermal conductivities in the range 0. Decrease in thermal conductivity for higher filler loading is due to the lower thermal conductivity of rice husk particle filler material.
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Table 4. The influence of the factors on the system can be calculated using the data in Table 4 to create the response table and plot the response diagram of the factors. As seen in Figure 5 , the optimal combination of process parameter settings for minimizing the thermal conductivity of rice husk particles reinforced polymer composite is A3, B3 and C2 i. This chapter has presented the results of the experiments conducted to evaluate thermal conductivity of the polymer composites under study.
Based on the response in Table 5 , the degree of contribution of the parameters to the system can be calculated. The contribution degree of parameters is higher for higher value of subtraction results. In Table 5 , B has highest subtraction value, A has medium value and C has lowest value. ANOVA is also required for determining the error variance for the effects and variance of prediction error. Table 5. Integration results of response in Taguchi experiments.
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Figure 5. The total sum of squares can be calculated using the relation. In this study, a successful fabrication of rice husk filled polymer composites with different filler contents was possible by hand lay-up technique. Share Give access Share full text access.
Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Incorporation of different types of nanofillers in the PVDF poly vinylidene difluoride matrix exhibits promising dielectric, magnetic, piezo, pyro, and ferroelectric properties for various applications. Citing Literature. Volume 40 , Issue 3 March Pages Related Information.
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