Increase Mather: Clergyman and Scholar (Colonial Leaders)

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Who Was Cotton Mather? Brilliant Scientist, Misguided Minister

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Mather, Increase [WorldCat Identities]

View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title -- Compelling portraits of American history's most notable male and female leaders -- Includes informative sidebars -- Interesting, easy-to-understand content -- Complements school curriculum Mather's name has often been erroneously connected to the Salem witch-hunts. Once in Charleston, Lafayette used almost all his money to buy carriages and horses for himself and the other French officers. They would ride to Philadelphia.

The American Congress met in that city. The French officers had to meet with the president of Congress before they could join the American army. Meanwhile, La Victoire hit a reef while leaving Charleston Harbor and sank. The warship that had cost Lafayette so much money would never help America win a battle.

John Cotton

Lafayette might not have known this when he left Charleston. It could take days or weeks for news to reach people. The roads in the colonies were poor. One of the officers with Lafayette kept a journal. This outlay took all our money. Some of it was stolen. They walked much of the way. Often, they slept in the woods. They were very hungry and hot. Many of them were sick with high fevers and dysentery. Hancock was the president of Congress. He told the men to meet him at Independence Hall the next day. They were told to wait in the street outside. He had lost his ship, carriages, and luggage.

After all that, he was being told to go home. He decided not to return to France right away. Running Away to America 29 Lafayette was excited to arrive in Philadelphia, but he was upset when Congress rejected his offer to serve in the army. Instead, he wrote a letter to Congress.

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Many other French officers had already asked to be officers in the American army. Most of those officers did not actually want to fight. They only wanted the title and the pay. George Washington and other Americans felt that was not fair to the American soldiers. The American officers fought hard and risked their lives in battles. Washington believed these Americans should be made officers instead of the French. Lafayette himself spelled his name both La Fayette and Lafayette.

The common French spelling was La Fayette. After , he almost always signed his name Lafayette. Some people believe this was a way he showed that he did not think he was better than other people. Back then, Americans had fought with the British against the French.

The Americans were not sure they could trust their old French enemies to help them fight. Lafayette was well-known in France. But in America, no one knew he was a wealthy man who belonged to a very powerful family. Americans simply knew he was only 19 and had never fought in a battle. Lafayette had brought letters from other important people to tell the Americans who he was.

When they learned how important Lafayette was in France, the members of Congress changed their minds. Congress gave Lafayette the title of major general in the American army. He would not be put in charge of other soldiers and he would not be paid. But he could fight with the Americans.

Cultural Citizenship - Vision & Justice -- Radcliffe Institute

Lafayette agreed. He hoped to prove himself to Congress. He thought that after he did, they would let him lead other soldiers like a real officer. But he was not afraid to run into battle with his soldiers, whom he told to fight bravely.

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Washington was in charge of the American army, and he invited Lafayette to stay with him. He thought of the young French officer as one of his military family. Lafayette was delighted. Washington knew that French soldiers were well trained. They had nice uniforms and good weapons. The American army did not have these things because Congress did not have money to pay for them. Some French officers looked down on the American soldiers because of this. The American soldiers had very little, but Lafayette admired their courage.

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He wrote about this in a letter to his wife. In spite of these disadvantages, however, they were fine soldiers and led by zealous officers. The British were winning the war. They had captured New York City. Now they were coming to take Philadelphia. In September, his soldiers met the British soldiers in the Battle of Brandywine. Brandywine was a small river in the hilly countryside near Philadelphia.

There were only Fighting for America a few places where it was shallow enough to cross the river. These places were called fords. He thought the British would try to cross the river there. Other soldiers were sent to guard the other fords up and down the river. About 11, American soldiers fought at Brandywine. Lafayette was in the front lines of the fighting.